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Colon Polypectomy

Definition

A colon polypectomy is the removal of polyps from the inside lining of the colon, also called the large intestine. A polyp is a mass of tissue. Some types of polyps can develop into cancer. Most polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.

A Colon Polyp
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Reasons for Procedure

The purpose of the surgery is to remove a polyp. It is done to prevent cancer.

In rare cases, larger polyps can cause troublesome symptoms, such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and bowel irregularities. A polyp removal will relieve these symptoms.

Possible Complications

Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have a polypectomy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:

  • Damage to the colon wall
  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Adverse reaction to the anesthesia

Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:

  • Smoking
  • Type, size, and location of the polyp
  • Patient factors, such as blood-clotting disorders, substance abuse, or chronic conditions like obesity and diabetes

What to Expect

Prior to Procedure

Your doctor will likely do the following:

  • Physical exam and health history
  • Review of medications
  • Blood tests
  • Pictures of your colon may need to be taken. This can be done with X-rays or a Barium enema.
  • An examination of your intestine may need to be done. This can be done with a diagnostic colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.

Your colon must be completely cleaned before the procedure. Any stool left in the intestine will block the view. This preparation may start several days before the procedure. Follow your doctor's instructions, which may include any of the following cleansing methods:

  • Enemas—fluid introduced into the rectum to stimulate a bowel movement
  • Laxatives—medications that cause you to have soft bowel movements
  • A clear-liquid diet
  • Oral cathartic medications—a large container of fluid to drink, which stimulates a bowel movement

Leading up to your procedure:

  • Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
  • The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
  • Wear comfortable clothing.
  • If you have diabetes, ask your doctor if you need to adjust your insulin dose.
  • Arrange for a ride home after the procedure.

Anesthesia

You will receive a sedative. This will help you relax. You will be drowsy but awake.

Description of the Procedure

You will be asked to lie on your side or on your back. A scope, a long flexible tube with a camera on the end, will be inserted through the anus. It will be slowly pushed through the rectum to the colon. The scope will also add air to open the colon.

Using the scope, the doctor will locate the polyp. The polyp will be snipped off with a wire snare from the scope. In some cases, the polyp may be destroyed with an electric current. The electric current is also used to close the wound and stop bleeding. The polyps will then be removed for lab testing. When the doctor is finished, the scope will be slowly removed.

For larger polyps, a laparoscopic surgical procedure may be needed. Special surgical tools will be inserted through small incisions in the abdomen. The tools will be used to locate and remove the polyp.

How Long Will It Take?

30-60 minutes

Will It Hurt?

The special cleaning solution, laxatives, and/or enemas often cause discomfort. During and following the procedure, there is little or no pain. You may feel pressure, bloating, and/or cramping because of the air passed into the colon. This discomfort will go away with the passing of gas. You may be given pain medication. If not, you can take over-the-counter pain relievers for discomfort.

Post-procedure Care

At the Care Center

The polyps will be sent to a lab for testing.

At Home

Expect a complete recovery within two weeks. Be sure to follow your doctor's instructions, which may include:

  • Avoid tea, coffee, cola drinks, alcohol, and spicy foods for at least 2-3 days following surgery. These can irritate the digestive system.
  • You will be scheduled for a follow-up colonoscopy in the future. It will be important to check for polyps.

Your doctor will discuss the results with you either the day of surgery or the following day.

Call Your Doctor

After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:

  • Signs of infection, including fever and chills
  • Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge from the rectum—up to ½ cup per day of blood can be expected for up to 3-4 days following polypectomy
  • Black, tarry stools
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Hard, swollen abdomen
  • Inability to pass gas or stool
  • Cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, or severe nausea or vomiting
  • New, unexplained symptoms

In case of an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: Daus Mahnke, MD
  • Review Date: 08/2014 -
  • Update Date: 09/12/2014 -
  • American Gastroenterological Association

    http://www.gastro.org

  • American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    http://www.asge.org

  • Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

    http://www.cag-acg.org

  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca

  • Colon polypectomy (polyp removal). Dartmouth-Hitchcock website. Available at: http://patients.dartmouth-hitchcock.org/gi/colon%5Fpolypectomy.html. Accessed September 12, 2014.

  • Consolo P, Luigiano C, et al. Efficacy, risk factors, and complications of endoscopic polypectomy: ten-year experience at a single center. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(15): 2354-2369.

  • How is colorectal cancer treated? The American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI%5F2%5F8%5FMaking%5FTreatment%5FDecisions%5FColon%5Fand%5FRectum%5FCancer.asp?sitearea=. Updated January 31, 2014. Accessed September 12, 2014.

  • Surgery for colorectal cancer. The American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/overviewguide/colorectal-cancer-overview-treating-surgery. Updated January 31, 2014. Accessed September 12, 2014.

  • 6/2/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.